AUTHORS: Pedal I; Zimmer G; Mattern R; Mittmeyer HJ; Oehmichen M.
[Todliche Zwischenfalle bei der Festnahme hochstgradig erregter Personen.]
Institute fur Rechtsmedizin, Universitaten Heidelberg, Tubingen.
Published in the Arch Kriminol
1999 Jan-Feb;203(1-2):1-9 (ISSN: 0003-9225)
This article is ONLY AVAILABLE IN GERMAN!
So, the abstract is all that will ever be posted here.
We report on four cases of sudden circulatory arrest during the physical restraint of extremely excited and repugnant men by the police.
Three persons died, and one became apallic. [I have no idea what that means!] The excited states resulted from acute schizophrenic disorder in one case, from intoxications (ethanol and drugs including cocaine respectively) in two others, and from encephalitis in the fourth case.
In only one case one of the police officers was condemned for involuntary manslaughter, responsibility was excluded in the remainder.
Similar lethal events in "excited delirium" are given in the American literature, the main etiologic factors being acute psychosis and cocaine intoxication. Most of these events occurred, differing from ours, under "hogtying" which is a technique of physical restraint in a prone position with the wrists and ankles bound behind the back. These events are thought to be cardiac in origin and to result from oxygen-consuming motor hyperactivity, excessive catecholamine release, and impaired breathing.
Police officers are recommended to restrict all measures of restraint to a minimum in extremely excited persons, and to avoid any compression of the trunk or neck. A continuous monitoring for vital signs is postulated in order to recognize a medical incident as quick as possible.
First: "repugnant men" ... HA! I love that phrase! Sorry. I digress!
"Most of these events occurred, differing from ours, under 'hogtying' ... These events are thought to be cardiac in origin and to result from oxygen-consuming motor hyperactivity, excessive catecholamine release, and impaired breathing
OK. So, these authors don't quite have a clear grasp of Restraint Asphyxia (it's certainly NOT "cardiac in origin"). But, if a medical person out there speaks fluent German, can obtain this article and translate it, I'd LOVE to learn: what position were the four victims of this study in? Forceful-prone-restraint? If so, these four case studies would be important to read!