Deaths Associated With Restraint Use
in Health and Social Care in the UK.
The Results of a Preliminary Survey.

Paterson B*; Bradley P*; Stark C**; Saddler D***; Leadbetter D^; Allen D^^

* Department of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Stirling, UK.
** Highland Health Board, Inverness, UK.
*** Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Dundee, UK.
^ CALM Training Services Limited, Menstrie, Clackmannanashire, UK.
^^ University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.


Many aspects of the management of acutely disturbed behavior have only relatively recently come under systematic scrutiny. Perhaps regrettably one of the last amongst the range of strategies that may be employed to be subjected to rigorous examination has been physical restraint. Considerable debate has recently taken place around what represents good practice in this sensitive and controversial area but the continuing dearth of research in some aspects of this area of practice has meant that this discussion has arguably been over reliant on 'expert' opinion. Questions continue regarding some fundamental issues of restraint, including the relative risks involved in alternative approaches, and anxieties have been expressed about the potential for injuries and death to result from restraint. This article outlines the results of a survey that sought to explore the incidence of deaths associated with restraint in health and social care settings in the UK. The outcome of an initial analysis of the cases identified is then discussed, with reference to the literature on restraint-related deaths, in order to identify the implications for practice.

There are TWO PDF versions of this paper available
(exhibiting "slight differences" in textual content, "dictated by the
JOURNAL in which they were published"):

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The FIRST version was published in the
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Citation: Paterson B, Bradley P, Stark C, et al.
Deaths associated with restraint use in health and social care in the UK.
The results of a preliminary survey.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs (England), Feb 2003, 10(1) p3-15.

And, the NEXT version was published in the
Mental Health Practice Journal
Citation: Paterson B, Bradley P, Stark C, et al.
Restraint-Related Deaths in health and social care in the UK: Learning The Lessons.
Mental Health Practice (England), June 2003, 6(9) p10-17.

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