Updated (finally!) in SEPTEMBER, 2004

Reference articles followed by a bold red asterisk (*)
are available in Charly's RESTRAINT ASPHYXIA LIBRARY

  1. O'Halloran RL, Lewman LV; Restraint asphyxiation in excited delirium. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1993;14(4):289-295.*

  2. Reay DT; Death in custody. Clin Lab Med, 1998 Mar;18(1):1-22.*

  3. Hirsch CS: Letter to the editor RE: Restraint asphyxiation in excited delirium & the article authors' reply Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1994;15:266.*

  4. O'Halloran RL, Frank JG: Asphyxial death during prone restraint revisited: A report of 21 cases. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2000;21(1):39-52.*

  5. O'Halloran RL, Frank JG: Authors' Reply to a Letter to the Editor regarding; Asphyxial death during prone restraint revisited: a report of 21 cases. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2000;21(4):420-422.*

  6. Lavoie FW: Consent, Involuntary Treatment, and the Use of Force in an Urban Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med January 1992;21:25-32.

  7. Rice MM; Moore GP: Management of the Violent Patient, Therapeutic and Legal Considerations. Emerg Med Clin North Am February 1991;9(1):13-30.

  8. Rund DA; Keller MD: To Restrain or Not to Restrain. Emerg Med Serv 1986 Jan/Feb;15:24,46-9.

  9. Reay DT, Eisele JW: Law enforcement neck holds. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1986 Jun;7(2):177.*

  10. Dick T: Straight shot: use of restraints, part 2. JEMS, Jan 2003, 28(1) p98, 100-1.*

  11. Reay DT, Howard JD, Fligner CL, Ward RJ; Effects of positional restraint on oxygen saturation and heart rate following exercise. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1988;9(1):16-18.*

  12. Reay DT, Fligner CL, Stilwell AD, Arnold J: Positional asphyxia during law enforcement transport. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1992;13(2):90-97.*

  13. FORENSIC PATHOLOGY, Second Edition, © 2001 by CRC Press LLC; DiMaio VJ, DiMaio D. Chapter 8: Asphyxia.*

  14. Bell MD, Rao VJ, Wetli CV, Rodriguez RN. Positional asphyxia in adults: A series of 30 cases from the Dade and Broward County Florida medical examiner offices from 1982 to 1990. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1992;13(2):101-107, 1992.*

  15. FORENSIC PATHOLOGY, Second Edition, © 2001 by CRC Press LLC; DiMaio VJ, DiMaio D. Chapter 22: Sudden Death During or Immediately after a Violent Struggle.*

  16. Luke JL, Reay DT; The perils of investigating and certifying deaths in police custody. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 13(2):98-100, 1992.*

  17. Ross DL; Factors associated with excited delirium deaths in police custody. Mod Pathol, Nov 1998, 11(11) p1127-37.*

  18. Pollanen MS, Chiasson DA, Cairns JT, et al.; Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in police custody and in the community. CMAJ, Jun 16 1998, 158(12) p1603-7.*

  19. Swann HG and Brucer M. The cardiorespiratory and biochemical events during rapid anoxic death - V. Obstructive asphyxia. The Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine, 1949;Vol. 7; pgs 593-603.*

  20. Stratton SJ, Rogers C, Green K; Sudden death in individuals in hobble restraints during paramedic transport. Ann Emerg Med, May 1995;25:710-712.*

  21. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Neuman T, Clausen JL: Restraint position and positional asphyxia. Ann Emerg Med, November 1997;30:578-586.*

  22. Howard JD, Reay DT. Letter To The Editor. Ann Emerg Med, July 1998; 32(1):116-117.*

  23. Reay DT: Hog-tied revisited. C.D. Miller's Restraint Asphyxia Library;; July 1st, 1998.*

  24. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Neuman T; Reexamination of custody restraint position and positional asphyxia. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1998;19(3):201-205.*

  25. Stratton SJ, Rogers C, Bricket K, Gruzinski G: Factors associated with sudden death of individuals requiring restraint for excited delirium. Am J Emerg Med, May, 2001;19:187-191.*

  26. Hick JL, Smith SW, Lynch MR: Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest: a case series. Academic Emerg Med, March 1999, Volume 6, Number 3.*

  27. Park KS, Korn CS, Henderson SO. Agitated delirium and sudden death: two case reports. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2001;5:214-216.*

  28. Miller CD. Restraint-related positional asphyxia "near-death" – a case study. August 30th, 1998.

  29. Blum AS, Ives JR, Goldberger AL, Al-Aweel IC, Krishnamurthy KB, Drislane FW, Schomer DL. Oxygen desaturations triggered by partial seizures: implications for cardiopulmonary instability in epilepsy; Abstract. Epilepsia, 2000 May;41(5):536-41.

  30. Langan Y, Nashef L, Sander JWAS. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: a series of witnessed deaths. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2000 Feb;68(2):211-3.

  31. Tekkok SB, Godfraind JM, Krnjevic K. Moderate hypoglycemia aggravates effects of hypoxia in hippocampal slices from diabetic rats. Neuroscience (United States), 2002, 113(1) p11-21.

  32. Ichord RN, Johnston MV, Traystman RJ. MK801 decreases glutamate release and oxidative metabolism during hypoglycemic coma in piglets. Brain Res Dev Brain Res (Netherlands), Jun 29 2001, 128(2) p139-48.

  33. Derwen JJ, Linsenmeier RA. Hypoglycemia increases the sensitivity of the cat electroretinogram to hypoxemia. Vis Neurosci (England), Nov-Dec 2001, 18(6) p983-93.

  34. Ichord RN, Northington FJ, van Wylen D, et al. Brain O2 consumption and glutamate release during hypoglycemic coma in piglets. Am J Physiol (United States), Jun 1999, 276(6 Pt 2) pH2053-62.

  35. Strachan MW, Deary IJ, Ewing FM, et al. Acute hypoglycemia impairs the functioning of the central but not peripheral nervous system. Physiol Behav (United States), Jan 2001, 72(1-2) p83-92.

  36. Rabinovici GD, Lukatch HS, MacIver MB. Hypoglycemic and hypoxic modulation of cortical micro-EEG activity in rat brain slices. Clin Neurophysiol (Netherlands), Jan 2000, 111(1) p112-21.

  37. Brun JF, Dumortier M, Fedou C, et al. Exercise hypoglycemia in nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes Metab (France), Apr 2001, 27(2 Pt 1) p92-106.

  38. Guagnano MT, Pace-Palitti V, Formisano S, et al. Does holiday hypoglycaemia exist? Panminerva Med (Italy), Mar 2000, 42(1) p23-6.

  39. King P, Kong MF, Parkin H, et al. Well-being, cerebral function, and physical fatigue after nocturnal hypoglycemia in IDDM. Diabetes Care (United States), Mar 1998, 21(3) p341-5.

  40. Dorchy H. Sports and type I diabetes: personal experience. Rev Med Brux (Belgium), Sep 2002, 23(4) pA211-7.

  41. Katz LM, Wang Y, Rockoff S, et al. Low-dose Carbicarb improves cerebral outcome after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats. Ann Emerg Med, Apr 2002, 39(4) p359-365.*

  42. American Heart Association; Standards and guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. JAMA, 1986;255:2843-2989.

  43. Textbook of Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Second Edition © 1987 by The American Heart Association.

  44. Dybvik T, Strand T, Steen PA. Buffer therapy during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation (Ireland), Apr 1995, 29(2) p89-95.

  45. Fillmore SJ, Shapiro M, Killip T. Serial blood gas studies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Intern Med, 1970; 72:465-9.

  46. Chazan JA, Stenson R, Kurland GS. The acidosis of cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med, 1968; 278:360-4.

  47. Gazmuri RJ, Weil MH, von Planta M. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: acid-base alterations and alkalizing therapy. Rev Med Chil (Chile), Mar 1989,117(3)p322-9.

  48. Von Planta M, Bar-Joseph G, Wiklund L, et al. Pathophysiologic and therapeutic implications of acid-base changes during CPR. Ann Emerg Med, Feb 1993, 22(2 Pt 2) p404-10.

  49. Chan TC; Neuman T; Clausen J; Eisele J; Vilke GM. Weight force during prone restraint and respiratory function. Am J Med Pathol, 25(3):185-189, September 2004.*

  50. Roeggla M, Wagner A, Muellner M, Bur A, Roeggla H, Hirschl MM, Laggner AN, Roeggla G. Cardiorespiratory Consequences To Hobble Restraint. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 1997 May 23;109(10):359-61.*

  51. Reay DT: Suspect restraint and sudden death. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, May, 1996.*

  52. Ambulance transport death results in questioning of techniques. EMS Professionals, July-August 1997;6-8.*

  53. Prehospital Emergency Pharmacology. Bledsoe BE, Clayden DE, Papa FJ: © 2001 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; p.134.

  54. Huang YG, Wong KC, Yip WH, et al. Cardiovascular responses to graded doses of three catecholamines during lactic and hydrochloric acidosis in dogs. Br J Anaesth (England), May 1995, 74(5) p583-90.

  55. Modest VE, Butterworth JF. Effect of pH and lidocaine on beta-adrenergic receptor binding. Interaction during resuscitation? Chest (United States), Nov 1995, 108(5) p1373-9.

  56. American Heart Association; Standards and guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. JAMA, 1974;227:833-868.

  57. 1997-99 Emergency Cardiovascular Care Programs, Advanced Cardiac Life Support © 1997 by The American Heart Association.

  58. 2000 Handbook of Emergency Cardiovascular Care for Healthcare Providers © 2000 by The American Heart Association.

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