Esquivel AO, Dawe EJ, Sala-Mercado JA, Hammond RL, Bir CA.
The physiologic effects of a conducted electrical weapon in swine.
Ann Emerg Med, November 2007; V 50, No 5, Pgs 576-583.
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CHAS’ ARTICLE ABSTRACT REVIEW:
As you read this ABSTRACT and eventually (hopefully) the ARTICLE
PLZ keep the following FACTS in mind!:
Although this HEALTHY PIG STUDY REPORT “concluded” that The Stinger S-400 [TASER] appears
to have no serious adverse physiologic effects on healthy, anesthetized swine;
The adverse physiologic effects discovered by this study represent a SERIOUSLY LETHAL
effect upon HUMAN BEINGS who are subjected to REAL LIFE TASER FIRE incidents!
The Physiologic Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon in Swine
Amanda O. Esquivel, MS, Elizabeth J. Dawe, DVM, Javier A. Sala-Mercado, MD, PhD, Robert L. Hammond, PhD, Cynthia A. Bir, PhD.
By using an animal model, we determine whether repeated exposures to a conducted electrical weapon could have physiologic consequences.
Exposures to the Stinger S-400 conducted electrical weapon [TASER] were applied to 10 healthy, anesthetized, Yorkshire-cross, male swine by attaching probes from the cartridge to the sternal notch and anterolateral thorax at a distance of 21.5 cm. The standard pulse generated by the Stinger S-400 during the normal application was applied 20 times during 31 minutes. To evaluate the health effects of the exposures, key physiologic characteristics were evaluated, including arterial pH, PCO2, PO2, blood lactate, cardiac output, ECG, pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and airway pressure, and the cardiac marker troponin I.
There were notable changes in pH, PCO2, blood lactate, cardiac output, and mean arterial pressure after 1 or more sets of exposures, all of which normalized during the next few hours. Troponin I, PO2, pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and airway pressure did not change markedly during or after the shocks. Three premature ventricular contractions occurred in one animal; all other ECG results were normal.
Repeated exposures to a conducted electrical weapon result in respiratory acidosis, metabolic vasodilation, and an increase in blood lactate level. These effects were transient in this study, with full recovery by 4 hours postexposure. The Stinger S-400 appears to have no serious adverse physiologic effects on healthy, anesthetized swine.
As the “contact” author, Cynthia A. Bir provided her Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
As well as her SNAIL MAILAddress for reprints:
Cynthia Bir, PhD,
818 W Hancock
Detroit, MI 48201
[Annals] Supervising editor: Stephen R. Thom, MD, PhD
Author contributions: CAB conceived the study and obtained research funding. EJD, RLH, and CAB designed the trial. AOE, EJD, JAS-M, and RLH supervised the conduct of the trial and data collection. AOE and RLH collected the data. AOE analyzed the data. JAS-M examined the ECGs. AOE drafted the article, and all authors contributed substantially to its revision. AOE takes responsibility for the paper as a whole.
Funding and support: By Annals policy, all authors are required to disclose any and all commercial, financial, and other relationships in any way related to the subject of this article, that might create any potential conflict of interest. See the Manuscript Submission Agreement in this issue for examples of specific conflicts covered by this statement. This study was supported by Stinger Systems Inc. for funding of the technical costs of the study. The authors had sole responsibility for the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, and preparation of the article. None of the authors have any financial interest in Stinger Systems Inc., nor have they received any financial support from Stinger Systems Inc. outside of the grant.
Publication dates: Available online August 23, 2007.
Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 576-583 (November 2007).
© 2007 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.