Of Articles
Related To
And Other
“STUN” Devices

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Our old webhost suffered a catastrophic meltdown in the fall of 2013 and we had to move to a new host.
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Due to the vast number of pages and documents posted on CharlyDMiller.com, only the
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Almost ALL of these articles are provided in PDF format.
If you don’t have an Adobe Acrobat PDF file READING program, you can download a FREE version HERE.

Some of the NEW PDF files have return links to this page.
But, very few of the older PDF files do!
SO … “BOOKMARK” this page before you click on any link!

An animated Pink-Push-Pin Icon indicates an “old” or “updated” article that was recently added.

I don’t always have time to write a “review” of each Taser-related article. Soooo …

To develop a TRUE understanding of the PROBLEMS
with the majority of TASER STUDY reports and articles, plz read
The TRUTH About Tasers & Stun Guns” FIRST!

The TRUTH About Tasers® & Stun Guns
CITATION: Miller CD. The truth about deaths involving Tasers: Do Tasers kill?
The August 2006 update of a January, 2006 article.
The UPDATED version of this article was posted here in August, 2006.
This article’s original version was posted here on January 24, 2006.

Click here if you want to read the OLD (January 24, 2006) article.

The TASER Article Collection

Text in NAVY Color = QUOTES from the article.
Text in BLUE Color = Chas’ comments (OPINIONS) about the article.

Assessment of the TASER XREP Blunt Impact and Penetration Injury
Potential Using Cadaveric Testing

CITATION: Lucas SR, McGowan JC, Lam TC, Yamaguchi GT, Carver M and Hinz A.
Assessment of the TASER XREP Blunt Impact and Penetration Injury Potential Using Cadaveric Testing.
J Forensic Sci. Early Online View: October 15, 2012.
doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02298.x
Funded in part by TASER International and by Exponent, Inc. …
TASER International’s extended range electronic projectile (XREP) is intended to be fired from a shotgun, impact a threat, and apply remote neuromuscular incapacitation. This study investigated the corresponding potential of blunt impact injury and penetration. …
There were several limitations in this investigation. … The focus of this study was blunt impact to the torso region of the cadaver. Impacts to the face and extremities were not investigated. … inadvertent contact to the target’s face or skull is still a possibility.
Other than the one shot on Torso 2 (shot 2Q1—91.4 m/sec, 300 ft/sec) that PENETRATED THE ABDOMINAL WALL, there was no evidence of punctures through the abdominal, thoracic, or the retroperitoneal wall in both torsos from the any of the other shots. Further research is necessary …

This article was originally posted here on October 15, 2012.

Repetitive TASER X26 Discharge Resulted in Adverse Physiologic
Events with a Dose-Response Relationship Related to the Duration
of Discharge in Anesthetized Swine Model

CITATION: Park EJ, Choi SC, Ahn JH and Min YG. Repetitive TASER X26 Discharge Resulted
in Adverse Physiologic Events with a Dose-Response Relationship Related to the Duration
of Discharge in Anesthetized Swine Model. J Forensic Sci. Early Online View: October 15, 2012.
doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02287.x
This study demonstrated that 10 sec of TASER X26 discharge led to a longer duration
of vasodilatory hypotension and a higher increase in lactate level than did 5 sec of TASER
X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. These results suggest that repetitive TASER
X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose–response relationship
related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in this anesthetized swine model.

Anesthetized Swine Model
This article was originally posted here on October 15, 2012.

Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death Associated with Application of
Shocks from a TASER Electronic Control Device

CITATION: Zipes DP. Sudden cardiac arrest and death associated with application of shocks
from a TASER electronic control device.
Circulation 2012; DOI:10.1161/?CIRCULATIONAHA.112.097584.
Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org
CONCLUSIONS–ECD stimulation can cause cardiac electrical capture and provoke cardiac
arrest due to ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. After prolonged ventricular
tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation without resuscitation, asystole develops.
… Alternate explanations such as excited delirium would be more relevant when
there was a significant time delay between ECD deployment and loss of consciousness
/responsiveness or death. However, when loss of consciousness/responsiveness occurs
during/immediately after an ECD chest shot … it becomes difficult to exonerate the
effects of the shock. It is also possible that combinations exist.

I disagree with Zipe’s blanket theory that loss of consciousness reported immediately
following Taser deployment rules-out excited delirium. (Reports provided by those who Taser,
regarding the time that loss-of-consciousness occurred, are often … inaccurate.) But, I’m
happy that researchers are finally identifying Taser/ECD deployment as being potentially
lethal– NOT something entirely safe to deploy.

This article was originally posted here on May 2, 2012.

TASER Loses Appeal, but Gets Judgment Cut
From $10 Million to $4 Million

US District Court, Western District of North Carolina, Charlotte Division: 3:10-cv-125-RJC-DCK:
Tammy Lou Fontenot (Estate of DARRYL WAYNE TURNER, deceased), Plaintiff,
vs TASER International, INC., Defendant.
For the reasons that follow, the Court will deny TASER’s Motion for JNOV and New Trial,
but will order remittitur of the jury’s $10 million award to $4,372,399 …

According to Wikipedia:
JNOV is the practice in American courts whereby the presiding judge in a civil jury trial may
overrule the decision of a jury and reverse or amend their verdict. … This intervention, often
requested but rarely granted, permits the judge to exercise discretion to avoid extreme and
unreasonable jury decisions.
This article was originally posted here on March 28th, 2012.

Respiratory and Cardiovascular Response During Electronic Control Device (ECD) Exposure in Law Enforcement Trainees
CITATION: VanMeenen KM, Lavietes MH, Cherniack NS, Bergen MT, Teichman R, ServatiusRJ.
Respiratory and cardiovascular response during Electronic Control Device (ECD) exposure in law enforcement trainees.
An unpublished report of a study funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, received by the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) in December, 2011, and posted on the NCJRS website.
This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised.
Comments of the individual who sent this report to the RA Library: I have for a long time fretted about the shell game that directs our attention to cardiac effects so thoroughly that it conceals the effects of shock on volitional and automatic respiration. Canada is currently spending up to half a million on an expert panel to evaluate taser research and identify holes – they have 14 experts, not one is a respiratory specialist.
This article was originally posted here on January 29, 2013.

Teen’s Family Wins $10 Million Taser Verdict
CITATION: GL Wright, CR Wootson Jr. Teen’s family wins $10 million Taser verdict.
www.bostonherald.com Wednesday, July 20, 2011
… the federal jury found that Taser International failed to warn that discharging its
Taser into the chest of a suspect near the heart poses a substantial risk of cardiac
arrest. The company’s animal studies, they said, demonstrated the risk.

Of course, TASER Inc is appealing.
This article was originally posted here on July 21, 2011.

Conductive Electronic Weapons and Their Faults
Author; Trevor Langevin. Publisher; Lulu.com (April 15, 2011).
Conductive Electronic Weapons and Their Faults is a book based on a Human Factors
research project on the problems of using stun guns on commercial aircraft.
The Robert Dziekanski incident happened at the Vancouver International Airport,
and those findings were integrated into the research project. The author submitted
all the results to the Braidwood Inquiry. The testimonies and other information
revealed during the inquiry required multiple updates for unanswered questions
and accusations to be addressed.
The Braidwood Inquiry is not the only legal entity to find that the stun gun can cause death. But, it is the first where Taser International has not been able to change the final decision with legal action. The book centers around the authors submitted information to the inquiry, and has reached a new detailed hypothesis on how stun guns can cause death within seconds to days after a discharge. It also explains how the guns basic design can become faulty and output repeated arc phase levels of power.
This book’s link and description was originally posted here on June 29, 2011.

Increased Hematocrit After Applications of Conducted Energy Weapons (Including TASER® Devices) to Sus scrofa
CITATION: Jauchem, JR. Increased hematocrit after applications of Conducted Energy Weapons (including TASER® devices) to Sus scrofa. J Forensic Sci, Early View (Articles posted online in advance of print). [Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010. Received 3 Nov. 2009; and in revised form 22 Dec. 2009; accepted 30 Dec. 2009.]
If you Purchase This Article Here, plz send me a copy to post in the Taser Collection.
ABSTRACT: Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without intending to cause lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures in some cases. In laboratory animal models, central venous hematocrit has increased significantly after CEW exposure. Even limited applications (e.g., three 5-sec applications) resulted in statistically significant increases in hematocrit. Preexposure hematocrit was significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors after more extreme CEW applications. The purpose of this technical note is to address specific questions that may be generated when examining these results. Comparisons among results of CEW applications, other electrical muscle stimulation, and exercise/voluntary muscle contraction are included. The anesthetized swine appears to be an acceptable animal model for studying changes in hematocrit and associated red blood cell changes. Potential detrimental effects of increased hematocrit, and considerations during law enforcement use, are discussed.
Discovery of another form of potentially detrimental effects caused by TASER use. Oh, surpriZe.
Plz note that the author submitted this study’s report OVER A YEAR AGO! Thus, the study itself may have been conducted up to TWO years ago. One cannot help but wonder what (or WHO) caused such a long delay in making this information public.

This article was originally posted here on December 30, 2010.

Additional Information on Taser Safety
CITATION: Bozeman, WP. Additional information on Taser safety.
Ann Emerg Med November, 2009; 54(5): pgs 758-759.
While investigations to clarify the risks and optimize the safety of these devices must continue,
the overall balance of risks versus benefits in terms of injuries prevented and lives saved weighs
heavily in favor of the use of [Tasers].

Bozeman describes his first reference (The UK Police Home Office report of 05May09) [SEE
BELOW!] as “
The UK has recorded 4,046 consecutive Taser uses overall and 1330 cases in which
conducted electrical weapons were discharged and an electrical shock was delivered.

This article was originally (belatedly!) posted here on July 1, 2010.

Electromuscular Incapacitation Results From Stimulation of Spinal Reflexes
CITATION: Despa F, Basati S, Zhang ZD, D'Andrea J, Reilly JP, Bodnar EN, and Lee RC.
Electromuscular incapacitation results from stimulation of spinal reflexes.
Bioelectromagnetics July, 2009; 30(5): pgs 411-421
[Total body uncoordinated muscular activity, also known as electromuscular incapacitation] by
stimulation of spinal reflexes can result from one electrode in contact with the body if the tissue
field produced by the electrode activates multiple nerve types in the region of the electrode.

This article was originally posted here on August 4, 2009.

Figures on the Reported and Recorded Uses
of Taser by Police Forces in England and Wales

CITATION: UK Police Home Office, Scientific Development Branch. Figures on the reported
and recorded uses of Taser by police forces in England and Wales. 05 May 2009:
This article was originally (belatedly!) posted here on July 1, 2010.

Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used by
Law Enforcement Officers Against Criminal Suspects

CITATION: Bozeman WP, Hauda WE 2nd, Heck JJ, Graham DD Jr, Martin BP, Winslow JE.
Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers
against criminal suspects. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Apr;53(4):480-9. Epub 2009 Jan 21.
This study has several limitations. The information abstracted for study purposes was based on
review of written officer reports and medical records, which has well-recognized limitations. …
[T]he incidence of minor injuries may have been underestimated. … The presence of alcohol or
drugs was based on officer reports, rather than toxicologic testing, …
Another “Limitation”: The authors elected to exclude two DEATHS that occurred after
individuals were TASED, because the medical examiner in each case arbitrarily (without
scientific support) opined that the Taser was not “causal or contributory to” the deaths.

This article was originally posted here on March 24th, 2009.

Preliminary Reports of the Death of Robert Lee Welch
After SIX Taser Fires

Welch's mother says a deputy put his foot on the back of his neck and then her son's body
relaxed. He was loaded into an ambulance. A statement from the sheriff's office says paramedics
discovered he wasn't breathing and didn't have a pulse.

Joe [Welch] insists his son wasn’t forcefully pushing anyone when he was Tasered. … “They
Tasered him six times, and he (a deputy) stood his foot on Robert’s neck.”

Robert Lee Welch (40) died on February 28th, 2009, after Montgomery County (Texas) Sheriffs
Office deputies TASERED him at least SIX times. However, at this writing (March 23, 2009), it
is not yet clear precisely how Mr. Welch was RESTRAINED by MCSO deputies during this
incident. As more information becomes available, it will be posted.

This article was originally posted here on March 23, 2009.

Taser's Delirium Defense; The other ED
CITATION: Yeung B. Taser's delirium defense; the other ED. How lawyers used junk science
to explain away stun-gun deaths. Mother Jones, March/April 2009; pages 15-18.
The cops deployed their Tasers, jolting Lee 19 times in all. … The cause [of death],
a county medical examiner concluded, was “excited delirium.” …
“We look at excited delirium as a … way for the police department, the officer, and
Taser to shift responsibility [for causing the death] to the victim.” …
“No [practicing] medical doctor would write down ‘delirium’ on a death certificate
as a cause of death,” says [Shao-Hua] Lu, who trains Canadian Mounties … “I don’t
understand why MEs would write that.”

This is an EXCELLENT Investigative Report!
I challenge Vincent Di Maio (and others of his ilk) to cite a SINGLE published case study
identifying Excited Delirium – all by itself – having caused someone’s sudden unexpected
death in the field.
To date, EVERY death that has erroneously been attributed to ED occurred during an
incident involving Tasering, an asphyxial form of restraint, or both.
Furthermore, EVERY individual who has ever blamed a sudden unexpected death in
the field on Excited Delirium (including Di Maio, Ho, Kroll, Tuttle, Peters, Berman, and
the like) can clearly be shown to have a significant bias, or a personal agenda entirely
inconsistent with the pursuit of truth and honesty. In fact, such individuals routinely
demonstrate a deliberate indifference to the health and welfare of US citizens.

This article was originally posted here on February 27th, 2009.

Acute Effects of An Alternative Electronic-Control-Device Waveform in Swine
CITATION: Jauchem J, Beason CW, Cook MC. Acute effects of an alternative electronic-control-
device waveform in swine. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2009 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Transient increases in potassium, and sodium … Blood pH was significantly decreased …
Lactate was highly elevated and remained somewhat increased even after three hrs. Serum
myoglobin was increased after exposure and remained elevated for the 3-h follow-up period.
Acidosis would appear to be one of the major concerns with long-duration (e.g., several min)
exposures over a short period of time.

All caused by Tasering rested, anesthetized (unstressed) pigs.
This article was originally posted here on April 29, 2009.

Cop Tasers Autistic Boy Unconscious; Family Sues
Police, School After 9-1-1 Called During Outburst

CITATION: Cop Tasers autistic boy unconscious; Family sues police, school
after 9-1-1 called during outburst. WorldNetDaily article; February 24, 2009.
The family claims Carmel police officer Matthew Kinkade restrained the 5-foot, 90-
pound [14-year-old autistic] boy and forced him onto a bench in the school lobby. When
his outburst continued, the officer allegedly Tasered the boy two times – leaving him
unconscious. … The Police Department claims the school never notified officers of the
boy's condition, although school officials say they did. … Noblesville Police
Department Lt. Bruce Barnes … wouldn't speculate about whether the autistic boy
actually posed a legitimate threat to police, according to the report.

AFTER he was RESTRAINED, a police officer TASERED Matthew – TWICE!
Once again, Taser Inc.’s continued refusal to reasonably mandate that, “Thou shalt not
Taser someone already restrained, because you have NO EXCUSE for doing so!” results
in another case of ABUSE (Torture) via TASER. Then, again, the law enforcement
agencies that sanction the use of Tasers (and provide their officers with the Taser
weapon), COULD choose to independently mandate that, “Thou shalt not Taser someone
already restrained, because you have NO EXCUSE for doing so!” But, they don’t. Thus,
both Taser Inc. and Carmel/Noblesville (Indiana) Police Departments EQUALLY share
the responsibility for this officer’s TASER TORTURE of a 14-year-old autistic boy.

This article was originally posted here on February 26th, 2009.

Landmark Documents Just Filed in A Florida Case:

Kirkham Identifies Two Additional MODES OF USE (Applications)
That TASER INC and It’s “Experts” Have Knowingly Failed to
Identify Within Official Documents, Studies, and Sworn Statements

Lidia Bolander [et al], Plaintiffs, vs. Taser International, Inc. et al., Defendants.
United States District Court for the Southern District Of Florida, West Palm Beach Division;
27. Based on these materials alone, Taser’s assertion that there are only
two modes of taser use is false, and knowingly so.
28. In addition, and in light of the above, the statements of Taser’s experts
Jeffrey D. Ho, M.D., and Mark Kroll, Ph.D., are also false.

George Kirkham is an honest and honorable Law Enforcement Practices Expert Witness,
whom I am proud to have worked with on several restraint-asphyxia-related cases.

This document was originally posted here on February 2nd, 2009.

©2007 Taser Slides, With Instructor Notes,
Demonstrating Taser’s Knowledge Of
MORE Than Just “Two Modes” of Taser Use.

Lidia Bolander [et al], Plaintiffs, vs. Taser International, Inc. et al., Defendants.
United States District Court for the Southern District Of Florida, West Palm Beach Division;
SLIDE 200: If only one probe strikes a subject, the drive-stun will act as a
second probe by completing the cycle. In these incidents, the drive-stun should
be applied at a location away from the probe to simulate a good probe spread
and achieve incapacitation.
SLIDE 204: It is an acceptable technique to fire the cartridge from close range
or in contact with the body of the subject. If needed the officer can then apply a
drive-stun back-up with the cartridge still in place away from the deployed probes
and cause a “three-point” contact.

Personally, I think Slide #204 demonstrates a FIFTH Mode of Taser use!
This document was originally posted here on February 2nd, 2009.

Dr. Waxman Corrects His Previous Testimony
After Learning of TASER’s Misinformation

Lidia Bolander [et al], Plaintiffs, vs. Taser International, Inc. et al., Defendants.
United States District Court for the Southern District Of Florida, West Palm Beach Division;
I have become aware of some Taser information which indicates that the Taser gun
can operate in 4 different modes as opposed to the 2 modes (probe mode and drive
stun mode) referred to in Taser’s submission to the court of a motion for summary
judgment … This new information is highly relevant since Mr. Bolander was Tasered
by one of these new modes and I believe that this mode of Taser operation is far more
likely to affect the heart and breathing. …
3. The multiple human and animal experiments that Taser Inc. relies on to promote
the idea that Taser shocks are not harmful have all used electrodes in a single body
plane and thus do not come close to replicating the Taser applications in Mr. Bolander.
4. Thus we can conclude that Mr. Bolander was subjected to far more effective
simulation than those studies relied on by Taser Inc. The net result of the more effective
thoracic stimulation in Mr. Bolander’s case was to arrest his breathing and his heart.

This document was originally posted here on February 2nd, 2009.

The ORIGINAL PATENT For The Electric Weapon
That Eventually Became The TASER!

Lidia Bolander [et al], Plaintiffs, vs. Taser International, Inc. et al., Defendants.
United States District Court for the Southern District Of Florida, West Palm Beach Division;
ABSTRACT: A weapon for subduing and restraining includes an electrical power
supply.The magnitude and frequency of the electrical impulses delivered to the target
provide energy in excess of 0.001 joules and ranges in effect from IMMOBILIZING

[My Underline and All-Caps in the Above Quote!]
This document was originally posted here on February 2nd, 2009.

TASER Is Ordered To Pay Heston Family’s Attorney Fees!; $1,423,127
Betty Lou Heston, et al., Plaintiffs, v. City of Salinas, et al. [Taser International], Defendants;
in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California,
San Jose Division, No. C 05-03658 JW
; Dated: January 30, 2009.
In support of their motion, Plaintiffs provide evidence that, as a result of this verdict, law
enforcement officials all over the world are re-considering and potentially reforming their
usage and training policies for Tasers.
… This is an extraordinary case. Although Plaintiffs’ civil rights claim against Salinas
was unsuccessful, it was part-and-parcel of an action that has provided a significant benefit
to the public.
… The Court GRANTS Plaintiffs’ Motion for Attorney Fees and awards to Plaintiffs
from Defendant TASER the amount of $1,423,127.

Thank you (yet again), John Burton!
This article was originally posted here on January 31, 2009.

Adoption of Stun Guns Spikes the Risk of In-Custody Death in The First Year
CITATION: O'Riordan M. Adoption of stun guns spikes the risk of in-custody death
in the first year. The Heart.org January 30, 2009
"That finding is supportive of the fact that the Taser might be causing excess mortality in the first
year. As police learn to use the weapon, as they start to recognize that there might adverse
outcomes with the gun, they would no doubt adjust their techniques or change their policies. It
suggests that this excess mortality is preventable."

Tseng added that the study was not designed to answer the question of whether the Taser causes
death but rather to look at what happens when it is introduced in a real-world setting.

If TASER International were to finally begin providing law enforcement personnel with
adequate (honest!) education as to SITUATIONS wherein it is reasonable for them to deploy the
TASER (such as, “NOT after someone is already restrained!”), and adequate education as to
reasonable LIMITS of TASER deployment (such as, “If the TASER hasn’t accomplished
incapacitation after THREE shocks, DISCONTINUE firing the damn TASER!”), DEATHS
associated with TASER deployment could be entirely avoided! Unfortunately, TASER
International remains far more interested in selling their product, than in protecting US citizens
from being harmed or killed by their product.

This article was originally posted here on March 23, 2009.

Relation of Taser (Electrical Stun Gun) Deployment to
Increase in In-Custody Sudden Deaths

CITATION: Lee BK, Vittinghoff E, Whiteman D, Park M, Lau LL, and Tseng ZH.
Relation of Taser (electrical stun gun) deployment to increase in in-custody sudden deaths.
Am J Cardiol 2009;xx:xxx (Article In Press, Published online 22 January 2009)
In our anecdotal experience, several cities with highly publicized Taser-related sudden death
events declined to provide data and we speculate that other cities with more Taser-related deaths
may similarly have been less likely to return our survey. Thus, the observed association of Taser
deployment with an early increase in in-custody sudden deaths in this study may actually be an
underestimate because under-reporting would tend to attenuate any such association.

Thank you, John Burton, for contributing this article.
This article was originally posted here on January 29, 2009.

The Neuroendocrine Effects of the TASER X261: A Brief Report
CITATION: Dawes D, Ho J, Miner J. The neuroendocrine effects of the TASER X261: A
brief report. Forensic Sci Int. 2009 Jan 10;183(1-3):14-9. Epub 2008 Nov 18.
Our preliminary data suggests that physical exertion during custodial arrest may be most
activating of the human stress response ... [T]echniques to limit the duration of this exertion may
be the safest means to apprehend subjects, particularly those at high-risk for in-custody death.

Basically, this study provides scientific support for mandating a RULE that, “If it doesn’t stop
them from struggling, Thou shalt not TASE someone more than twice – thrice, at the very most!”
Will TASER INC mandate that rule? Probably not. (Quel surpriZe!)
BTW: On page 16, the authors insinuated that in-custody deaths have been caused by
excited delirium. Again! Excited delirium – all by itself – has never been legitimately shown
to have caused an in-custody death.

This article was originally posted here on March 24th, 2009.

Americans Drop Dead as Police Get Taser-Happy;
Are Cops Underestimating stun Gun's lethal Power?

CITATION: Americans drop dead as police get Taser-happy; Are cops
underestimating stun gun's lethal power? WorldNetDaily article; Dec. 28th, 2008.
Even though the news is inundated with stories of people dying after being stunned by
Tasers, police departments all over the nation are adding the electric-shock weapons to
their arsenals, convinced the benefits outweigh the risks.

In 2009, all the so-called "Independent medical and scientific" reports bought and paid
for by Taser Inc. claiming to have determined that TASER devices are "safe" to use, will
be shown to have absolutely NO RELATIONSHIP to REAL LIFE use of the Taser. In
other words, they’ll be shown to be BOVINE SCAT! Personally, I can’t wait!!! YAY!

This article was originally posted here on February 26th, 2009.

Taser X26 Discharges in Swine: Ventricular Rhythm Capture
is Dependent on Discharge Vector.

CITATION: Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Dennis AJ, Margeta B, Starr F, Nagy KK, Bokhari F,
Wiley DE, Joseph KT, Roberts RR. Taser X26 discharges in swine: Ventricular rhythm
capture is dependent on discharge vector. J Trauma. 2008 Dec;65(6):1478-85;
discussion 1485-7.
In this swine model, transcardiac discharge vectors on the ventral surface very often
(85.2% of the time) produced ventricular capture, which was seen as high-rate VT
[Ventricular Tachycardia]. This capture usually reverted spontaneously to sinus rhythm
postdischarge but in two instances degenerated into VF [Ventricular Fibrillation]. …
Human studies … would be of great interest. However, cardiac effects …
suggest that the risk of serious injury in such studies is very high.

Rested, anesthisized pigs were KILLED by the Taser X26 – Go figure.
This article was originally posted here on April 23, 2009.

ZAPPING TASER; A Surprise Plaintiffs Win Highlights A Scientific Mystery:
Why Do Some People Die After Being Shocked Repeatedly With Stun Guns?

CITATION: Nasiripour S (and the Center for Investigative Reporting). Zapping Taser; A surprise plaintiffs win
highlights a scientific mystery: Why do some people die after being shocked repeatedly with stun guns?
December 2008 issue of California Lawyer.
Until this year, Taser International had never lost a case alleging wrongful death or personal
injury from use of its stun guns. But in June two Southern California lawyers won a jury verdict
that may force Taser to change the way it does business.

This is a well-researched, well-written article about the Heston case. It discuses how expensive
it is to go up against Taser International; explains how Burton and Williamson defeated Taser’s
long-established means of saving their corporate asses by muddying the waters with Bull Chit
“scientific research” (so-called “scientific research” they bought and paid for), and how Burton
and Williamson defeated Taser’s traditional practice of precluding important experts from
testifying against their product via inappropriate use of Daubert challenges.
This article also identifies the very important precedent set by this trial:

Judge Ware wrote in his order, "The Court finds that there was substantial evidence ... that under
certain conditions, prolonged exposure to electronic control devices posed risks to human health
... that a reasonable manufacturer would have warned of those risks ... [and] that Taser failed to
give an adequate warning and that this lack of warning led the Salinas police officers to make
prolonged deployments against Robert C. Heston."

This article was originally posted here on December 2, 2008.

KUDOS for Georgia U.S. District Judge Beverly B. Martin!
SHAME ON Chief Judge J.L. Edmondson & Judge Joel F. Dubina,
of Florida’s 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals!

In an “unpublished opinion” released September 9th, 2008, related to the Buckley v. Racknard
case; a divided federal appellate panel reversed the lower court ruling of a Florida District Judge,
and ruled that a Florida deputy did not use “excessive force” when he TASERED a
after the man refused to sign a traffic citation and
then sat on the ground crying and refusing to get into the deputy’s patrol car.
As aptly and accurately stated by the Honorable Beverly B. Martin:
This is not a case about whether an officer may use a taser gun to subdue an unruly or
dangerous individual. … Rather, the question in the case is whether a taser gun may be
used repeatedly against a peaceful individual as a pain-compliance device – that is, as
an electric prod – to force him to comply with an order to move.

Unfortunately, Chief Judge Edmondson managed to get Judge Dubina to join him in
entirely ignoring a U.S. citizen’s Fourth Amendment rights.
I don’t know why this Ruling is stamped “DO NOT PUBLISH” – maybe because it is
such an incredibleTravesty of Justice”!!! I also don’t know what is meant by “publish”
in this context. But! Because I found this document “POSTED” on the INTERNET
www.ca11.uscourts.gov/, linked from a www.Law.Com article), I’m going to
POST it HERE as well.
After all, the Public has a RIGHT to know how the “NOT-SO-HONORABLE” Judges
Edmondson and Dubina rule when a citizen’s Fourth Amendment Rights are VIOLATED.
My OPINIONS are inserted on the Cover Page of the Ruling’s PDF file.

Florida’s 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals’ September 9th, 2008,
Ruling Related to The Buckley v. Racknard Case

Jesse Daniel Buckley, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Hon. Bobby Haddock (Sheriff of Washington
County), Defendant, and Jonathan Rackard (Deputy Sheriff), Defendant-Appellant;
in the United States Court of Appeals for the 11 Circuit, No. 07-10988;
D.C. Docket No. 06-00053 CV-5-RS-MD
Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida
Dated September 9th, 2008

Deputy's Three Taser Jolts to Handcuffed Motorist
Not Excessive, Says Split 11th Circuit

CITATION: McDonald RR. Deputy's three Taser jolts to handcuffed motorist not
excessive, says split 11th Circuit. www.Law.Com; 2008, September 15.
An article posted on www.Law.Com

These two documents were originally posted here on February 3, 2009.

Police Taser Boy With Broken Back 19 Times;
Authorities Say They Were Trying To 'Keep Him From Getting Hurt'

CITATION: Police Taser boy with broken back 19 times; Authorities say they were
trying to 'keep him from getting hurt.' WorldNetDaily article; August 01, 2008.
When police arrived, they found Hutchinson under an overpass on U.S. 65 Saturday
morning, … The boy had fallen 30 feet off the overpass and was lying on the shoulder.
When the boy didn't respond to police, they Tasered him, repeatedly [19 times].
… Ozark police say the wounded boy was a threat. "He refused to comply with the
officers and so the officers had to deploy their Tasers in order to subdue him," Capt.
Thomas Rousset said.

“When the boy didn't respond to police, they Tasered him” – 19 times!
Tasering someone simply because they refuse to follow your orders (someone who is not
actively threatening your personal health or safety) is a violation of the FOURTH
AMENDMENT, which prohibits the infliction of gratuitous pain and injury as a means to
coerce compliance. But, because of Taser Inc.’s continued refusal to reasonably mandate
that, “Thou shalt not Taser someone just because they ignore your orders!” Ozark police
department failed to independently mandate that rule for their officer’s use of a Taser
weapon. Thus, this is yet another case of PUNITIVE ABUSE (Torture) inflicted with a
TASER. And, both Taser Inc. and the Ozark Police Department are culpable in this case.

This article was originally posted here on February 26th, 2009.

Echocardiographic Evaluation of a TASER-X26 Application
in the Ideal Human Cardiac Axis.

CITATION: Ho JD, Dawes DM, Reardon RF, Lapine AL, Dolan BJ, Lundin EJ, Miner JR.
Echocardiographic evaluation of a TASER-X26 application in the ideal human cardiac axis.
Acad Emerg Med. 2008 Aug 10; 15:838–844. [Epub ahead of print]
A 10-second ECD exposure in an ideal cardiac axis application did not
demonstrate concerning tachyarrhythmias using human models.

RIGHT. How many times are Taser barbs embedded “in an ideal cardiac axis application”
location during the entirely uncontrolled activity that accompanies real-life Taser use?
Hmmm … Can we say, “Ridiculously Stoopid Study”??? I think we can.
Certainly, this “TASER study” offers absolutely NO information applicable to real life.

This article was originally posted here on February 3, 2009.

This advocacy group was established subsequent to the [Taser-related] death of our
son and brother, Patrick D. Hagans. … The task of our advocacy organization is to
support agencies that are demanding further research and stricter regulations regarding
the use of Tasers for both law enforcement officers and private citizens.
If your belief is “SAFETY, NOT HARM” please join us in this crusade to make our
world a much more protected place for all.

Links to other Organizations demanding further Taser research and
stricter Taser regulations can be found on PDH’s “FORUM” page.

This LINK was originally posted here August 25, 2008

An Unbelievably Grotesque and DEVIANT Case of Summit County, Ohio,
SHERIFF’S DEPUTIES Sexually Abusing, Hogtying, TASERing, and
Pepper Spraying a Mentally Ill Man While In Custody!

Oh, SurpriZe. Their Victim Died.

This case didn’t come to my attention until August, 2008, when one of the five Deputies
who participated in these heinous and deviant acts was found not guilty of homicide.
Hence, this link’s order of appearance.

This case article collection was originally posted here on August 13, 2008.

Two Letters to the Editor and the Authors’ Reply
Regarding Vilke et al’s Healthy Human Subjects Taser Study Report

(A report published in the Ann Emerg Med November 2007 Issue.)
Citations and a brief review are on the above-linked page.
These Letters were originally posted here June 19, 2008.

Documents Related to the June 2008 Jury Verdict
Against TASER International Inc.

Taser Held Responsible in Salinas Death
CITATION: Johnson J. Taser held responsible in Salinas death.
The Herald (Monterey County, CA); Saturday, June 7, 2008.
… officers shocked him repeatedly [30 times] with Tasers. Some shocks were
administered after Heston Jr. was held down by several officers.
Salinas Police Chief Daniel Ortega said his department wouldn’t
make any major changes in its Taser use and training procedures,
despite the verdict finding that Tasers can be dangerous.

Chief Ortega elects to entirely ignore the fact that the manner in
which his Officers used their Tasers resulted in someone’s death.

This document was originally posted here on July 18, 2008.

Federal Court Jury Awards 6.2 Million Dollars in TASER-Related Death
[If you get an “Oops! This link appears broken!” message when you click on ANY of these
LINKS, click on REFRESH, or go back and click on the link again. These files ARE here!]

CITATION: PRWeb Press Release News Wire
San Jose, CA; June 8, 2008; http://www.prweb.com/releases/2008/06/prweb1007494.htm
A Federal Jury returned a verdict late Friday afternoon in the amount of
$6,221,000.00 against TASER International Inc., for the wrongful death of a
40-year-old Salinas, California, man, who died following repeated shocks
from three TASER electronic control devices ("ECDs").

This document was originally posted here on July 18, 2008.

Betty Lou Heston, et al., Plaintiffs, v. City of Salinas, et al. [Taser International], Defendants;
in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California,
San Jose Division, No. C 05-03658 JW
The Jury Found that:
… the failure by TASER International to warn the Salinas Police Officers of the
risks of prolonged deployment was a substantial factor in causing the officers to
use the device [as they did] … [And,] as a consequence of the prolonged
deployment of [three] Taser ECDs …, Robert C. Heston suffered acidosis to a
degree which caused him to have a cardiac arrest.

This document was originally posted here on July 18, 2008.

TASER “Training and Legal Bulletin” in Response to Heston Verdict
Citation: TASER Training and Legal Bulletin 14.0-5. Release Date: 6/12/2008
Subject: Recent Jury Verdict in TASER Use-of-Force Case
This bulletin will set forth the salient facts and address some of the misinformation
being circulated misconstruing the Heston verdict against TASER as a liability risk to
law enforcement agencies who are using TASER devices. …
While exposure to [TASER] is not risk-free, … law enforcement
need not refrain from deploying [TASERs]

Hmmm. TASER whining about “misinformation” being circulated against them.
How ironic!NO ONE is better at circulating disinformation than TASER!
This bulletin demonstrates how TASER remains far more interested in preventing
their SALES from suffering, than in preventing HUMAN suffering! And how
TASER remains far more interested in preventing their SALES from suffering, than in
preventing LAW ENFORCEMENT officers from having to suffer the psychological and
financial trauma of a wrongful death law suit!
TASER’s persistent REFUSAL to establish responsible and specific guidelines for
the SAFE use of their product is based primarily upon their fear of SALES loss (if they
admit that the TASER can be lethal if used incorrectly, law enforcement services might
stop buying them), and secondarily upon their fear of the litigation expense they’ll incur
once they are forced to admit that the TASER can be lethal if used incorrectly.
[See the NEXT Document’s quotes!]

This document was originally posted here on September 1, 2008.

Taking Aim at Taser: Lawsuits Target Stun Gun Maker
CITATION: Lawyers USA Online Staff Writer, Nora Lockwood Tooher
Taking aim at Taser: Lawsuits target stun gun maker.
Published: July 28, 2008
[Patrick Lee, 21] got Tased up to 19 times, and we feel that was excessive
and contributed to his death,” said Tommy Overton, a Nashville solo attorney
who is representing Lee's family in a civil lawsuit.” …

[Robert Heston] was subjected to 25 different charges [prior to his death.]” …
[Michael Brave, national litigation specialist for Taser International] dismissed
suggestions that the company should issue warnings about multiple firings of
its devices. "Do baton manufacturers put out how many times someone should
be batoned? Do pepper-spray manufacturers put out how many times you
should pepper spray someone? Do firearms manufacturers tell you how many
shots to fire?" he asked. "It's ludicrous to do this."

This article was originally posted here on September 1, 2008.


Case No. C 05-03658 JW
Plaintiffs Proved by Clear and Convincing Evidence That TASER’s Conduct
Was Wilful, Intentional, and Done in Reckless Disregard of the Probability
of Injury to Others …
In the present case, plaintiffs presented expert testimony establishing the danger
posed by a TASER ECD. Once that danger was established, the jury was perfectly
capable of determining the adequacy of any warning given without the aid of expert
testimony, especially given that TASER gave no warning.

This document was originally posted here on September 1, 2008.


Case No. C 05-03658 JW
TASER has offered no evidence to establish that the jury’s verdict is against
the clear weight of the evidence, is based upon evidence which is false, that
the verdict will result in a miscarriage of justice, or that a mistake has been
committed by the jury. For these reasons, TASER’s motion for a new trial
should be denied, and judgment entered on the verdict.

This document was originally posted here on September 1, 2008.

Citation: New study: TASERs “as safe as weapons can be,” not “instruments of death”
PoliceOne.com June 06, 2008.
This SHAM “book review” contains a LINK to EXCERPTS from the
SHAM BOOK that generated it – as well as my REVIEW of same!

“SHAM: Something false or empty that is purported to be genuine; a spurious imitation”
These PDFs were originally posted here on June 27, 2008.

Tasers In Medicine: An Irreverent Call For Proposals
CITATION: Stanbrook, MB. Tasers in medicine: an irreverent call for proposals.
CMAJ May, 2008;178(11):1401-2.
To be approved for use, medical devices must satisfy rigourous scientific standards
and be subjected to clinical trials. This is to protect the public from unsafe medical
devices. Fortunately for TASER International, there are no similarly rigourous
scientific standards mandated to protect the public from potentially unsafe law
enforcement devices. …
We imagine that, to TASER International, this type of research may seem
unnecessary and pedantic. We're sorry, but in the end, we are used to thinking like
physicians and scientists concerned about health, preferring to gather and analyze the
facts rather than succumbing to the bald assertions of a large corporate entity that has
demonstrated a willingness to squelch any messages that could hurt its bottom line.

This is a perfectly WONDERFUL Editorial!!!
This article’s PDF was originally posted here May 20, 2008.

Cardiac Stimulation With High Voltage Discharge From Stun Guns
CITATION: Kumaraswamy N, Massé S, Umapathy K, Dorian P, Waxman S,
Waxman M. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns.
CMAJ May, 2008;178(11):1451-7.
Despite many studies suggesting that stun guns do not affect the heart, the evidence and
studies presented in this review suggest that, in some circumstances, stun guns may
stimulate the heart while discharges are being applied. However, there is no conclusive
evidence to show whether stun gun stimulation (under certain electrophysiological
conditions) can result in cardiac arrhythmias late after stun gun discharge. In our view,
it is inappropriate to conclude that stun gun discharges cannot lead to adverse cardiac
consequences in all real world settings.

This article’s PDF was originally posted here May 20, 2008.

15-Second Conducted Electrical Weapon Exposure Does Not Cause
Core Temperature Elevation in Non-Environmentally Stressed Resting Adults

CITATION: Dawes DM, Ho JD, Johnson MA, Lundin E, Janchar TA, Miner JR.
15-Second conducted electrical weapon exposure does not cause core temperature elevation in
non-environmentally stressed resting adults. Forensic Sci Int 2008 Apr 7;176(2-3):253-7.
Non-Environmentally Stressed Resting Adults
The quote above sums up my “review” of this Taser study and its report.
Only the ABSTRACT is posted, with a link to follow to purchase the article.
(US $31.50) If you purchase it, plz send me the PDF to share with others.

This article abstract was originally posted here June 19, 2008.

Blood Factors of Sus scrofa Following a Series of
Three TASER® Electronic Control Device Exposures

CITATION: Jauchem JR, Cook MC, Beason CW. Blood factors of Sus scrofa
following a series of three TASER® electronic control device exposures.
Forensic Sci Int March 2008: V175; Issue2-3, Pages 166-170.
Transient increases in blood glucose, lactate, sodium, potassium, calcium,
and pCO2 were consistent with previous reports … it is unlikely that
this would be an indicator of any serious harm.

Like Jauchem et al’s previous Pig study, this one provides NO support for their
suggestion that is “safe” to subject human beings to Taser fires (whether or not
they are being subjected to forceful-prone-restraint before, during, or after Taser fires).
Thus, I did not BUY this article. If you buy it, send me its full pdf file, & I’ll post it.

This article’s ABSTRACT was originally posted here February 11, 2008.

On January 7, 2008, someone who runs what is currently called an “Excited Delirium Blog
sent me a link to it. Upon visiting it, I discovered that it actually was a “TASER Blog” site.
Thereafter, I ended up doing some Net-surfing and discovered that there is
an amazing number of “TASER Blog” sites on the Internet!
The LINK above will take you to a page containing links to several of them
JUST to get you STARTED!
This page of Taser Blog Links was originally posted here on January 7th, 2008.


at the end of the ABOVE-LINKED “TASER BLOGS” PAGE!

The Physiologic Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon in Swine
CITATION: Esquivel AO, Dawe EJ, Sala-Mercado JA, Hammond RL, Bir CA.
The physiologic effects of a conducted electrical weapon in swine.
Ann Emerg Med, November 2007; V 50, No 5, Pgs 576-583.
The adverse physiologic effects discovered by this RESTED, HEALTHY PIG STUDY
represent SERIOUSLY LETHAL effects upon HUMAN BEINGS who are subjected to

This article’s ABSTRACT was originally posted here November 29, 2007.

Thoracic Compression Fractures as a Result of Shock From
a Conducted Energy Weapon [TASER]: A Case Report

CITATION: Winslow JE, Bozeman WP, Fortner MC, Alson RL. Thoracic compression
fractures as a result of shock from a conducted energy weapon: A case report.
Ann Emerg Med, November 2007; V 50, No 5, Pgs 584-586.
Though generally regarded as safe, conducted energy weapons can
produce injuries. In this case report we describe for the first time thoracic
spine compression fractures resulting from a
[TASER] discharge.
These SPINE FRACTURES were suffered by a rested and HEALTHY 38-year-old
law enforcement officer, who VOLUNTEERED to be TASERed!

This article’s PDF file was originally posted here November 29, 2007.

Neuromuscular Effects of Stun Device Discharges
CITATION: Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Dennis AJ, Nagy K, Loor MM, Winners J,
Bokhari F, Wiley D, Merchant A, Joseph K, Roberts R. Neuromuscular effects of
stun device discharges. J Surg Res, November 2007;143(1):78-87.
This study used the MK-63 STUN BATON (as opposed to a TASER, Inc. DEVICE)!
limitations: … (2) For ethical reasons, ketamine/xylazine anesthesia was used in this swine model.
Anesthesia precludes pain perceptionPain perception would undoubtedly alter some of the
responses reported here
. (3) In the field, stun devices are used to subdue combative individuals
who are usually in a state of greatly increased sympathetic activity and, in many cases,
are under the influence of alcohol or other drugs that may alter the thresholds for dysrhythmia
and for pain
. Under those conditions, the effects of MK63 discharges might deviate
considerably from those [reported] here
. … Since previous animal studies of the TASER X26
showed some dramatic physiological changes, the present findings may be due to the
unique waveform and pulse power generated by the MK63 device, to differences in the
electrode spacing for the MK63 compared with the TASER X26, or differences between
the model systems. Further studies are needed

This article’s PDF file was originally posted here December 28th, 2007.

With this – their third study report published in ONE YEAR – a new “GROUP”
of researchers has emerged: Valentino et al

Unfortunately, I worry that the Valentino et al group MAY be somehow … “related” …
to the manufacturer of the MK-63 STUN BATON. I have absolutely NO “evidence” to
suggest such a thing! It’s just a personal suspicion.

SEE: Comparison of the 2007-Published Articles by Valentino et al
…and come to your OWN conclusion.
This Comparison Chart PDF file was originally posted here December 28th, 2007.

Physiological Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon on Human Subjects
CITATION: Vilke GM, Sloane CM, Bouton KD, Kolkhorst FW, Levine SD, Neuman TS,
Castillo EM, Chan TC. Physiological effects of a conducted electrical weapon on
human subjects. Ann Emerg Med, November 2007; V 50, No 5, Pgs 569-575.
Oh, surpriZe! some Chan et al types TASERed HEALTHY and rested LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS,
and then concluded that the increased blood lactate & decreased pH their subjects suffered is something
that should NOT be considered “CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT.”
[Kinda’ makes you wonder who REALLY paid for this study, doesn’t it?]

This article’s ABSTRACT was originally posted here November 29, 2007.

Acute Effects of TASER X26 Discharges in a Swine Model
CITATION: Dennis AJ, Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Nagy KK, Winners J, Bokhari F,
Wiley DE, Joseph KT, Roberts RR. Acute effects of TASER X26 discharges in a
swine model. J Trauma. September 2007;63:581–590.
Immediately after the [TASER] discharge, two deaths occurred because of VENTRICULAR
FIBRILLATION. … In this swine model, lengthy thoracic discharges from a TASER X26 produced
… cardiorespiratory dysfunction which, when coupled with intense muscle contractions,
resulted in SEVERE acidosis, tachycardia, hypotension, and sometimes FATAL VF.

[This Article is mentioned in Comparison of the 2007-Published Articles by Valentino et al]
This article’s PDF file was originally posted here November 29, 2007.

Taser-Induced Rapid Ventricular Myocardial Capture
Demonstrated by Pacemaker Intracardiac Electrograms

CITATION: Cao M, Shinbane JS, Gillberg JM, Saxon LA. Taser-induced rapid ventricular
myocardial capture demonstrated by pacemaker intracardiac electrograms.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. August 2007, Vol. 18, No. 8, pp. 876-879.
A 53-year-old man with a dual-chamber pacemaker … received a Taser shot … Stored event data
revealed two high ventricular rate episodes corresponding to the … Taser application. …
As structurally abnormal hearts may be further compromised by rapid ventricular
stimulation, Taser discharges could pose additional risk to those individuals who have
either a pacemaker or internal cardiac defibrillator.

Something these authors FAILED to mention: ANYONE with a “structurally abnormal heart” can be
“compromised” (injured!) by such TASER-induced “rapid ventricular stimulation” – even if they DON’T
have “a pacemaker or internal cardiac defibrillator” to SET THEM RIGHT afterward!

This article’s PDF file was originally posted here November 29, 2007.

Intracranial Penetration of a TASER Dart
CITATION: Rehman T, Yonas H, Marinaro J. Intracranial penetration of a
TASER dart. Am J Emerg Med. July 2007;25(6): pgs 733.e3-733.e4
A 16-year-old boy was shot in the face with a Taser while resisting arrest.
One of the darts lodged in his skull and entered his brain.

This article’s ABSTRACT (sort of) was originally posted here November 29, 2007.

Three June of 2007 Taser Articles from the Phoenix New Times
(1) The Taser: Almost Never a Lethal Weapon: Examples of stun-gun use by Phoenix police officers.
(2) Taser Aftershock! Turns out much-maligned stun guns are a good thing overall.
(3) Death by Electrocutioner: In a worst-case scenario for stun guns, a Phoenix cop kills a suspect with an 84-second tasing.
Phoenix New Times: (1) & (2) June 21, 2007; (3) June 28, 2007.
These articles were submitted to the Taser Collection on Sep 18, 2010;
Originally posted here September 21, 2010.

Repeated Thoracic Discharges From a Stun Device
CITATION: Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Nagy K, Dennis AJ, Winners J, Bokhari F,
Wiley D, Joseph K, Roberts R. Repeated thoracic discharges from a stun device.
J Trauma May 2007;62(5):1134-1142.
This study used the MK-63 STUN BATON (as opposed to a TASER, Inc. DEVICE)!
These findings may differ from those seen with other EMI devices because of the
unique MK63 waveform characteristics or to specific characteristics of the model systems.

I wasn’t willing to pay $35 for this article. So, I’ve only posted its ABSTRACT.
[This Article is mentioned in Comparison of the 2007-Published Articles by Valentino et al]
This article’s ABSTRACT was originally posted here December 28th, 2007.

Letter to the Editor Regarding; Acidosis, Lactate, Electrolytes,
Muscle Enzymes, and Other Factors in the Blood of Sus Scrofa
Following Repeated TASER® Exposures.
[And an Article Author’s REPLY.]

CITATION: Miller CD. Letter to the editor regarding; Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes,
muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated
TASER® exposures. [And an article author’s reply.]
Forensic Sci Int 3 May 2007: V168; Issue(1), Pages e17-e18[e19]
I had to pay $30 to obtain the PUBLISHED version of my own letter! That document
did not include an Article Author’s REPLY page. Since there is no way in hell that I’m
going to pay another $30 to buy the published version of an Article Author’s reply, I
have posted the “Article In Press” version of Jauchem’s reply. (There is no reason to suspect
that his reply would have been changed in any way prior to publication.)

My REVIEW of Jauchem’s REPLY is included in this PDF document!
The “Article In Press” version of my Editor Letter was originally posted here in February 2007.
The final (May-published) version of my letter was posted here in June 2007.

The New TASER; So Very Pretty In Pink!
A collection of 2 Associated Press articles and 2 New York Times articles
published on January 8th and 9th, 2007.
The new weapon's introduction comes after a weekend that saw
two people die after police shocked them with Taser devices.

This file was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Taser Use in Restraint-Related Deaths
CITATION: Strote J, Range Hutson H. Taser use in restraint-related deaths.
Prehosp Emerg Care. 2006 Oct-Dec; 10(4): 447-50.
Importantly, the Taser is primarily used in cases where suspects are unarmed and violently
resisting arrest, a situation already known to be associated with in-restraint death from excited
delirium. … Nearly all subjects demonstrated behavior consistent with excited delirium and/or
stimulant use, and many were restrained with manual techniques associated with positional asphyxia.

This is a balanced and very well-written report. It’s a damn shame the authors didn’t have access
to more complete information. I hope they’ll someday arrange to do a prospective study, obtain
the missing pieces, and finally deliver an answer!

This article was originally posted here on April 2nd, 2009.

Cardiac Electrophysiological Consequences of
Neuromuscular Incapacitating Device Discharges

Nanthakumar K, Billingsley IM, Masse S, Dorian P, Cameron D,
Chauhan VS, Downar E, Sevaptsidis E. Cardiac electrophysiological consequences of
neuromuscular incapacitating device discharges.
J Am Coll Cardiol, August 2006;48(4):798-804
In an experimental model, NID [neuromuscular incapacitating device] discharges across
the chest can produce cardiac stimulation at high rates. This study suggests that NIDs
may have cardiac risks that require further investigation in humans.

The PDF file of this report was originally posted here in September, 2006.

Acidosis, Lactate, Electrolytes, Muscle Enzymes, and Other Factors in
the Blood of Sus Scrofa [PIGS] Following Repeated TASER® Exposures

CITATION: Jauchem JR, Sherry CJ, Fines DA and Cook MC.
Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the
blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER® exposures.
Forensic Sci Int; 10 August 2006: V161; Issue(1);pgs 20-30.
This study discovered that rested and anesthetized pigs suffered:
• “severe acidemia” for at least an hour after TASER exposure
• “increases in hematocrit, potassium, and sodium” for at least 30 minutes
post TASER exposure
• “significantly decreased” oxygen saturation “immediately after” being TASED,
that “returned to pre-exposure levels within 30 min.”
Considering those very important findings, imagine how much MORE
acidemia, electrolyte imbalance, and decreased oxygen saturation would be suffered by a
TASED HUMAN BEING who had been extremely exerting her/himself prior to TASER
exposure, AND extremely exerting her/himself during the struggle and forceful restraint
that occurred after being shot with a TASER!

This article was originally posted here in August of 2006.
An UPDATED version was posted here in February 2007.

Stun Guns Have Cardiac Risks, One Study Finds,
While Other Suggests Cocaine Protects Against VF

CITATION: O'Riordan M. Stun guns have cardiac risks, one study finds, while other suggests
cocaine protects against VF. The Heart.org August 9, 2006
"These findings suggest there exists the possibility of serious ventricular arrhythmia during NID
[Neuromuscular Incapacitating Devices (aka “Stun Guns”)] discharges in structurally normal
hearts during intense catecholamine stress," write Nanthakumar and colleagues. Such risks are
heightened in individuals with preexisting electrophysiological abnormalities, they add.

… [From second study:]
Using a device that matched the waveform of a commercially available device, Lakkireddy and
colleagues applied the electrodes to various regions of the posterior and anterior trunk regions of
cocaine-infused pigs. Standard discharges, lasting five seconds, did not cause ventricular
fibrillation before or after cocaine infusion.

Wouldn’t it be a HOOT if it were proven that being on cocaine PROTECTED you
from death due to TASER?

This article was originally posted here on March 23, 2009.

Interesting Photos of TASER International’s Executives
OK! I admit it! I don’t know where these pictures came from!
They may NOT be “legitimate” – though, it wouldn’t surpriZe me if they were!
ONE thing is for sure: They are a HOOT!!!

This file was originally posted here in the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on August 10, 2006.

Cardiovascular and Physiologic Effects of
Conducted Electrical Weapon Discharge in Resting Adults

CITATION: Ho JD, Miner JR, Lakireddy DR, Bultman LL, Heegaard WG.
Cardiovascular and physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon discharge in
resting adults. Acad Emerg Med (June) 2006; Vol. 13, No. 6, pgs 589-595.
In this resting adult population, the TASER X26 CEW did not affect the recordable
cardiac electrical activity within a 24-hour period following a standard five-second
application. … We recommend further study in the area of the ICD phenomenon to
better understand its causes.

Do the findings reported by this study relate – at all – to the “real life” circumstances
wherein a Taser is deployed? NO. They DON’T.
Furthermore, PLZ note that this study was

Supported in part by TASER International (Scottsdale, AZ),
manufacturer of the conducted electrical weapon in question.

Hey! At least these authors retained a modicum of “INTEGRITY”
by recommending “further study” in their conclusion!

This article was originally posted here in August, 2006.

Cardiac Monitoring of Human Subjects Exposed to the Taser
CITATION: Levine SD, Sloane C, Chan TC, Vilke GM, Dunford J.
Cardiac monitoring of human subjects exposed to the Taser.
Acad Emerg Med (May) 2006; Vol.13, No. 5: Supplement pg S47- a.
Other than an increase in heart rate, there were no cardiac dysrhythmia or ECG
morphology changes in human subjects who received a Taser shock. The clinical
implications of these findings require further investigation.

In their poster presentation abstract, these authors entirely neglected to identify that their
study subjects were HEALTHY and RESTED individuals. Such a neglect is not at all
surpriZing, considering the association of Ye Olde “Chan et al” group with this study.
But, at least one or more of the other authors successfully argued to retain a
bit of “INTEGRITY” by recommending “further investigation” in their conclusion!

This PRESENTATION ABSTRACT was originally posted here in August, 2006.

Can TASERS Directly Cause Ventricular Fibrillation?
CITATION: Will JA, Honyu J-YW, O’Rourke A, Webster JG. Can TASERS directly cause ventricular fibrillation?
2006 Experimental Biology Meeting, April 1-5, 2006; Abstract #327.
Previous pig studies placed the dart on the intact chest wall and the heart was then
separated from the heart by a fat and muscle layer which is not as thick in the human.
Our model will more closely provide a basis to correlate studies in the 2 species.

Because the currently available file is of this report’s presentation POSTER,
it has an odd layout and very small print. So, I copied and pasted all it’s portions into
the file linked above, making it easier to read and print. I had to rearrange
things here and there. But, none of its content has been altered.
To see the actual file for this report’s POSTER PRESENTATION, go to:

POSTER of “Can TASERS Directly Cause Ventricular Fibrillation?”
The poster can also be found on line at:
This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION in August, 2006.

USA: TASER-Related Deaths Increasingly Frequent.
Amnesty International; March 28, 2006.
This report was originally posted here in February, 2007.

This is an incredible EXTERNAL LINK!:

The above link will take you to a fantastic DIRECTORY PAGE of MULTIPLE
“Law Enforcement Agency Policies” DIRECTORY PAGES

This website was created by the Less Lethal Working Group (LLWG) to assist
local, state and federal law enforcement agencies in developing, implementing and
enhancing policies governing the use of less lethal technologies. The site is hosted by the
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) … Other agencies in the group
include: the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA);
the Major City Police Chiefs Association; the National Sheriffs Association (NSA),
the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP);
Montgomery County Police, Maryland; the Police Foundation, Community Policing
Consortium, & the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE).

Can we say, “WOW!”? I think we can!
This external link was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION in August, 2006.

Tasers Implicated in Excited Delirium Deaths
(Part Two of a two-part news report about excited delirium.)
[For some unknown reason, I couldn’t create a PDF file from the MSWord doc I
cut-&-pasted the info from this article’s website to! So, I had to create one from the
WEBPAGE. All the ADS and extraneous LINKS are in this document. If you print it,
do NOT print the pages with only that kind of krappe.]

CITATION: Sullivan L. Tasers implicated in excited delirium.
NPR: All Things Considered, Feb 27, 2006:
Civil-liberties groups fear that the diagnosis is being used to cover up police
abuse — and to protect companies like Taser International from lawsuits. … As
several officers hold Williams down, he is stunned six more times. A few minutes later,
the officers realize Williams is not breathing. … Taser International spokesman Steve
Tuttle acknowledges that each year, his company sends hundreds of pamphlets to
medical examiners explaining how to detect excited delirium.

Even though these are “news reports,” and don’t clearly discuss the manner of
restraint employed, they do a pretty good job of demonstrating the motivations of people
who seek to absolve restrainers from responsibility for causing asphyxial death.

This article was originally posted here on July 11, 2007.

Study Raises Concerns Over Tasers' Safety
CITATION: Anglen R. Study raises concerns over Tasers' safety.
The Arizona Republic; Feb 13, 2006.
A study measuring electric shocks from a Taser stun gun found that it was 39 times
more powerful than the manufacturer claimed, raising new questions about the weapon's safety.

The article this news story refers to is on its way to ME & this LIBRARY!
This article was originally posted to the RA Library TASER COLLECTION on February 17, 2006.

Taser International’s “Deadly Rhetoric” PROPAGANDA PAPER
CITATION: Taser International. Deadly rhetoric: How the ACLU of Northern California’s fight
against law enforcement control tools endangers communities. January 20, 2006.
[The above title suggests that this Taser Propaganda Paper was written in response to
“Stun Gun Fallacy: How The Lack of Taser Regulation Endangers Lives.”
That article is found below, in the September 2005 area.]
Can we say, “Taser International is scrambling to ensure continued sales of
their product?” I think we can. Can we also say that, “Taser International only wants
attention paid to studies they’ve bought-and-paid-for when arguing that their product is
safe?” Oh, yeah.

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION in August, 2006.

167 Cases of Death Following Stun-Gun Use
CITATION: Anglen R. 167 cases of death following stun-gun use.
The Arizona Republic; Jan. 5, 2006 01:20 PM.
This is the first article link provided in the Arizona Central dot com’s
Special Report collection of Taser-related article links (below).
This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on January 24, 2006.

Special Report; Stun Gun Under Fire
This is a collection of Taser-related article links assembled by Arizona Central dot com,
and published on their website on Jan 5, 2006.
Each of the links within the pdf file should open the corresponding webpage.
Just in case they don’t, here is the web address of the directory:
This directory pdf file was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on January 24, 2006.

Electromuscular Incapacitating Device Safety
CITATION: Sun H, Wu J-Y, Abdallah R, Webster JG.
Electromuscular incapacitating device safety. IFMBE Proc. EMBEC’05, (November) Vol. 11(1).
[IFMBE = the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering
EMBEC = European Medical & Biological Engineering Conference

[I don’t know whether this presentation was ever published.
It was obtained from one of the authors’ website:
Electrical tissue properties vary with locations in the body. The Taser waveforms
could vary with different Tasers, and different individual Taser impulses. We just used
one waveform as an example. These limitations may lead to misleading model results,
which have to be considered if models are to be used to predict the safe dart-to-heart distance.

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION in August, 2006.

Shock Treatment: Why Are Officers Being Tased?
Some Say Training Practice Should Be Stopped

CITATION: Denver Channel 7 News Story: “Shock treatment: Why are officers being tased?
Some say training practice should be stopped” November 9, 2005.
Perry said the five second Taser jolt sent him to the hospital where doctors treated him
for a variety of injuries, including a broken back. Perry said he was told that a Taser
could not injure him. … The logic is that taking a Taser hit will improve an officers
confidence in the weapon, create a better understanding of its power and make the officer
more credible in the courtroom during a trial. … "There's no value added. There's
absolutely zero value added in subjecting a police officer to that type of risk. It's not
done with conventional weapons," said forensic engineer James Ruggieri.

Quite the point! How many Officers are trained to shoot a GUN by first
being required to experience being SHOT by one?!

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on February 18, 2006.

PERF Conducted Energy Device
Policy and Training Guidelines for Consideration

CITATION: Police Executive Research Forum [PERF].
PERF conducted energy device policy and training guidelines for consideration.
Website: www.policeforum.org; Oct 25, 2005.
This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on January 24, 2006.

Comparison of: PERF Conducted Energy Device Policy and
Training Guidelines for Consideration
[with] MNPD Policy, Procedure, or Training

CITATION: Metropolitan Nashville Police Department [MNPD].
Comparison of: PERF conducted energy device policy and training guidelines for
consideration & MNPD policy, procedure, or training.
PERF allows use on subjects who are exhibiting “physically evasive movements”
or “verbally signaling an intention to avoid or prevent” where MNPD requires resistive
movements or physical defiance.

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION in August, 2006.

ACLU Study Finds Lack of Taser Stun Gun Regulation Threatens Lives
American Civil Liberties Union; October 06, 2005.
“The lack of regulation of Tasers is very disturbing in light of the increasing
number of deaths associated with its use,” Schlosberg said. “We fear that in the absence
of strong regulations on how police use the weapon, we are likely to see more
unnecessary deaths.” … Even more disturbing is the finding that only four departments
restrict the number of times an officer may fire a Taser at a suspect. Several of the
California victims were Tased repeatedly before they died, including Andrew
Washington of Vallejo, who was Tased 17 times in three minutes. … “Certainly, the
failure of many in law enforcement to ask tough questions about Tasers is partly to
blame,” Schlosberg said. “But Taser International is also responsible because its
questionable marketing practices and exaggerated safety claims provide the basis for
local police policy.”

This report was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Stun Gun Fallacy: How The Lack of Taser Regulation Endangers Lives.
CITATION: [Title as Above] ACLU of Northern California, September, 2005.
OR, http://www.charlydmiller/LIB08/2005SeptemberACLUofNCTaserStudy.pdf
Others groups against whom police should never use a Taser are those who
are already restrained (i.e. handcuff ed), and those who are unconscious.

What a concept! LOL
This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Ventricular Fibrillation after Stun-Gun Discharge
CITATION: Kim PJ, Franklin WH. Ventricular fibrillation after stun-gun discharge.
N Engl J Med Sep 2005;353(9):958-959.
“An adolescent was subdued with a Taser stun gun and subsequently collapsed.
Paramedics found the adolescent to be in ventricular fibrillation …”

To my knowledge, a full “Case Report” of this incident has never been written and
submitted for publication – in spite of the fact that many have ASKED for one.

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on September 1, 2005.

A MedPage Today News Article About Responses
to the Ventricular Fibrillation after Stun-Gun Discharge Letter

CITATION: Osterweil, N. Stun gun sends teen’s heart into ventricular fibrillation.
MedPage Today; September 02, 2005:
At a meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences in February, electrical engineer
James Ruggieri made a presentation in which he said that the electrical output of Taser's
M26 model succeeds the fibrillation threshold for half the U.S. population.

Well, of course TASER responded by stating that Ruggieri’s report was
“erroneous,” and that “A number of independent reviews have affirmed the life-saving
value of TASER as a safer, effective non-lethal use of force.” But, whether or not ANY
review cited by TASER to support its product was “independent” has frequently been
challenged. (TASER paid for the supportive reviews.)

This news article was originally posted to the
RA Library TASER COLLECTION in August, 2006.

An Open Letter to the Law Enforcement Community
CITATION: Luceri RM, Calkins H, Kroll MW. An open letter to the law enforcement community.
Written in response to the 2005 NEJM reported case of “Ventricular fibrillation after
stun-gun discharge,” this letter was originally posted online by TASER in December
of 2005, at http://www.taser.com/documents/12–5-Attachement.pdf.
Some time in early 2007, Taser removed it from their site.
This Letter was originally posted here on August 25, 2008

Withdrawal of Taser Electroshock Devices:
Too Much, Too Soon

CITATION: Bozeman WP. Correspondence; Withdrawal of taser electroshock devices:
Too much, too soon. Ann Emerg Med  September, 2005; 46(3):300-1.
“Withdrawal of Taser and other similar electroshock devices because of a flurry of media
attention rather than an analysis of scientific data would be a mistake. … That said,
the available safety data for these commonly used devices are clearly inadequate. … The
medical community should advocate the immediate funding of well-designed
objective assessments of the safety and health effects of these devices.”

Bozeman apparently believes that devices clearly associated with hundreds of
deaths since their use began, should REMAIN in use – without restriction – until
AFTER someone conclusively “proves” that they are “not safe.”

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on February 4, 2006.

Review of Conducted Energy Devices
CITATION: Canadian Police Research Center. Technical Report TR-01-2006
Review of conducted energy devices. August 22, 2005.
This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on January 24, 2006.

Lethality of Taser Weapons
CITATION: Ruggieri JA. Lethality of taser weapons. July 28, 2005.
In most all of the low energy electrocutions addressed by this author, if an electrical
connection has been established, and no other evidence of physical trauma was present,
the medical examiners often ruled death by electric shock, irrespective of any latent
condition, illness, drugs or alcohol later found in the patient. …
The technological advantages attributed to Tasers and similar devices have caused
some users to ignore legitimate concerns about permanent injuries resulting from use of
the device. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of forensic evidence, coupled with a
discrete analysis of the device’s engineering limitations, suggesting that national
guidelines for the use of Tasers and stun guns by law enforcement are needed to
prevent unnecessary deaths and permanent injuries.

This is an excellent report! Unfortunately, like all other reports related to
Taser deaths (as of July, 2005), its author was limited by the frequent failure of
investigators to “rule out” restraint asphyxia as the cause of death prior to blaming
the death on the Taser (or something else). Of all the cases discussed in this report,
only ONE identified the manner of restraint as having been investigated.
I am NOT a “promoter” of Taser use! But, unless restraint asphyxia can clearly
be RULED-OUT, I’m going to believe that the RESTRAINT caused the death
– not the Taser.

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION February 18, 2006.

Restraint During TASER™ System Application
TASER International Training Bulletin 12.0 – 04 June 28, 2005
“As a manufacturer, TASER International, Inc. (‘TI’) provides relevant technical
information on the operation of its devices through its training programs. However, TI
does not make policy recommendation on law enforcement tactics or use-of-force
guidelines other than general recommendations associated with the operating parameters
of TI brand devices.”

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on January 24, 2006.

TASER’s “Volunteer Warnings, Liability Release and Covenant Not to Sue”
Here are some “highlights” from this 2005 TASER document!
Any person that volunteers to experience a TASER device electrical discharge (‘TASER Exposure’)
must read and sign this Form prior to any TASER Exposure
” …
… The stress and exertion of extensive repeated, prolonged, or continuous application(s) of
the TASER device … may result in serious injury or death. The TASER device causes
strong muscle contractions, … Under certain circumstances, these contractions may
impair a subject’s ability to breathe.
If a person’s system is already compromised by
over-exertion, drug intoxication, stress, pre-existing medical or psychological condition(s), etc., any
physical exertion, including the use of a TASER device, may have an additive effect in contributing
to cumulative exhaustion, stress, cardiovascular conditions, and associated medical risk(s).
… In signing this Form, I agree that I have read and understand this entire Form;
I understand that it is a promise not to sue and a release and indemnity for all claims;
I further understand that by signing this Form I am giving up certain legal rights including
the right to recover damages in case of injury

This Document was originally posted here on August 25, 2008

Taser Technology Review Final Report
CITATION: Office of the Police Complaint Commissioner,
Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA.
Taser technology review final report. OPCC File Number 2474; June 14, 2005.
This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION on January 24, 2006.

“Use of Tasers by Selected Law Enforcement Agencies.”
US Government Accountability Office; Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on
National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations, Committee on
Government Reform, House of Representatives; May 2005 TASER WEAPONS.
This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine’s
Position, on Whether TASER® Electro Muscular Incapacitation Launched
Electrode Stun Weapons are Safe to Use on
U.S. Army Military and Civilian Personnel During Training

Citation: Memorandum: [above title here]. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
07 February 2005.
Recommendations: Data indicates that the use of Tasers as a [Non-Lethal Weapon] by
U.S. Army military and civilian forces is feasible and effective. The practice of using
these weapons on U.S. Army military and civilian forces in training is not recommended
given the potential risks

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION February 18, 2006.

Cardiovascular Risk and The TASER: A Review of The Recent Literature
CITATION: Sztajnkrycer MD. Cardiovascular risk and the TASER: a review of the recent literature.
ACEP’s Tactical Emergency Medicine Newsletter, 2005;2:2-9.
Although credited with saving hundreds to thousands of lives, controversy exists regarding an
increasing number of deaths temporally associated with TASER® use.

This is a terrifically WISHY-WASHY article. Granted, it accurately identifies the fact
that TASER International has inappropriately offered research they bought and paid for as
“independent studies,” and accurately identifies the fact that studies of the TASER’s effect on
entirely healthy individuals have NO relationship to “real life” TASER use. But, after offering
very brief lip service to the fact that excited delirium cannot legitimately be automatically
blamed for deaths associated with multiple TASER discharges, this article thereafter seems to
infer that excited delirium – all by itself – MAY BE the cause of the sudden deaths “temporally
associated” with TASER USE. This article infers that without offering any sort of scientific
support for such a suggestion. Lastly, this article concludes with the incredibly specious
argument that, since the “likelihood of death” is greater when law enforcement officers
FIRE BULLETS INTO SOMEONE, firing a TASER is a SAFE thing to do.

This article was originally posted here on December 9, 2008.

Earnings Quality Analytics Research Report; TASER International, Inc
CITATION: Earnings Quality Analytics Research Report;
TASER International, Inc. (TASR); January 21, 2005. By Gradient Analytics, Inc.
Earnings Quality Grade: F … The results of this analysis lend further support to our
theory that TASR faces an unusually high level of earnings quality risk at the present time.

This “Earnings Report” attributes TASR’s new earnings RISK to the discovery of biased
researchers having performed the clinical study that “has been provided by TASR management
as evidence that its guns are safe.” Poor TASR! Right.

This article was originally posted to the RA Library
TASER COLLECTION February 18, 2006.

USA: Excessive and Lethal Force? Amnesty International's
Concerns About Deaths and Ill-Treatment Involving Tasers.

CITATION: [Title as Above] AI Index: AMR 51/139/2004. 30 November, 2004.
This 94-page report was found in January 2006 at this address:
And, in February 2007 at this address:
This report was originally posted here on January 24, 2006.

CANADA: Excessive and Lethal Force? Amnesty International's
Concerns About Deaths and Ill-Treatment Involving Tasers.

CITATION: [Title as Above] AI Index: AMR20/002/2004. 30 November, 2004.
This article was originally posted here on January 24, 2006.

Recommendations Regarding Taser Use
CITATION: Scholsberg, M. Recommendations regarding Taser use.
September 21, 2004 ACLU of Northern California letter to San Francisco Police Commission.
http://www.cprc.org/docs/aclu.pdf OR:
In light of the yet unanswered questions regarding the safety of tasers –
particularly when used on individuals under the influence of drugs or with preexisting
heart conditions – we urge you to follow the lead of the police forces in the United
Kingdom and only authorize taser use in cases where deadly force would otherwise be
authorized or where there is an imminent threat to human life.

Scholsberg & the ACLU had it RIGHT way back in September, 2004.
They weren’t “against” Tasers, back then! They were simply concerned about the lack of
guidance and research that Taser International provided for Taser purchasers.
Yet, not only did Taser International ignore their suggestions in 2004, Taser International
STILL ignores their suggestions in 2007. Oh, surpriZe.

This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Taser International Report on In-Custody Deaths
A Taser International report accessible on September 3, 2004, that was
removed from Taser’s website after Mark Scholsberg’s September 21, 2004 letter.
In the words of Scholsberg: When Taser has reported on in-custody deaths and the
effects of tasers on overall departmental use of force, the information has sometimes
been incomplete or misleading.

That was a VERY kindly-worded UNDERstatement!
Taser International EXCELS at misleading customers, investors, & investigators.
In fact, Taser International is “proud” of being able to do that! After all, over the years
TASER has demonstrated that they clearly have no moral or ethical concern about people
being killed by their product. TASER’s big concern has always been to protect their
sales profits. And, as long as Taser International can keep profiting from the sale of their
product, they have no “reason” – whatsoever – to pursue
authentic scientific proof of its safety or dangerousness.

This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Coroner: “Taser Pushed for Revision of Autopsy”
CITATION: Robert Anglen; [Title above]. The Arizona Republic, August 25, 2004.
A South Carolina coroner says stun-gun manufacturer Taser International
is pressuring his office to reverse an autopsy that found a Taser contributed to the
death of a man last week. Anderson County Deputy Coroner Charlie Boseman said a
shock from a Taser was the "last straw" for a man who died Aug. 16 in a struggle
with deputies at a detention center.

This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Archive Documents Demonstrating Publications Wherein
Taser International Claims That Their Weapon is NON-LETHAL

Documents from August 05, 2003 to August 05, 2004.
This document collection was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Taser Safety Claim Questioned;
Medical Examiners Connect Stun Gun to 5 Deaths

CITATION: Robert Anglen; Taser safety claim questioned.
The Arizona Republic July 18, 2004.
Thousands of police departments, including every major law enforcement
agency in the Valley, buy Tasers on a claim that the electric stun guns will instantly take
down suspects without inflicting harm. That assertion of safety has generated record
sales for Scottsdale's Taser International Inc., which markets its guns as alternatives to
deadly force and says its goal is to arm every police officer in America. But an Arizona
Republic investigation has revealed that Taser's claims are based on autopsy reports the
company never possessed.

This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

As Police Use of Tasers Rises, Questions Over Safety Increase
CITATION: Alex Berenson; [Title Above]. New York Times, July 18, 2004.
The company's primary safety studies on the M26, which is far more powerful
than other stun guns, consist of tests on a single pig in 1996 and on five dogs in 1999.
Company-paid researchers, not independent scientists, conducted the studies, which were
never published in a peer-reviewed journal. The few independent studies that have
examined the Taser have found that the weapon's safety is unproven at best. Over all,
Taser has significantly overstated the weapon's safety, say biomedical engineers who
separately examined the company's research at the request of The New York Times.

This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Taser International Strongly Refutes New York Times Article
Company Stands Behind Safety of Taser Conducted Energy Weapons
CITATION: Taser International Press Release; July 19, 2004
Originally Internet-Posted at: http://www.taser.com/NYT/taser_nyt.html
OH, SurpriZe! That page is no longer available on Taser International’s
“Customer” Website. Thankfully, I found a copy of that Press Release on a
Taser International Investor Relations webpage:

This Taser Investor Relations Press Release was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Taser International Demands Amnesty International
Withdraw Its Misleading and Defamatory Statements.

Calls for Amnesty International to Provide Factual Support for Its Allegations, or
Immediately and Publicly Withdraw Them

CITATION: Taser International Investor Relations Press Release; June 2, 2004.
[I cannot find the AI statement that Taser is complaining about in this Press Release.
And, of course, Taser doesn’t provide a reference for it.]

This Taser Press Release was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Taser International “Memorandum of Law.”
CITATION: Taser International “Memorandum of Law.” May 3, 2004:
A TASER conducted energy weapon is not classified as firearm by the Federal Bureau of
Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives since it uses compressed nitrogen gas as the
propellant. Therefore, firearms-related regulations do not apply to the sale and
distribution of the TASER conducted energy weapon within the United States.

Basically, this “memo” is an attempt by TASER International to provide attorneys with
“directions” for how to defend Taser-users against wrongful death litigation. In doing so,
however, TASER has also provided plaintiffs’ attorneys with identification of some
arguments that need to be defeated, in order to successfully litigate Taser-users!

This article was originally posted here in August, 2006.

Archive Documents Demonstrating Publications Wherein
Taser International Claims That Their Weapon is NON-LETHAL

Documents from August 05, 2003 to August 05, 2004.
[This is the SAME document file that was posted in the August 2004 section above!]
This document collection was originally posted here in February, 2007.

Police Shoot Teenager With Taser in USA
Amnesty International; February 2003.
http://web.amnesty.org/wire/February2003/Taser OR
Law enforcement officers continue to use electro-shock weapons despite no
independent inquiry into their effects. … Chiquita Hammond’s case is just one of a
number of situations where police appear to have deployed Taser guns in unjustified
circumstances. Officers have been known to use Taser guns on people already in custody.
In another incident in Miramar, an officer used a Taser gun on a woman who, while
already handcuffed and placed in the back of a patrol car, was kicking the windows and
spitting on officers. … The use of these painful weapons in the case of an unarmed child
constitutes an excessive and disproportionate use of force

THREE police officers were present. They PEPPER SPRAYED and then TASERED
an unarmed, 15 year-old girl. The local prosecutor “investigated” the incident, and
determined that the THREE officers had handled the arrest of an unarmed, 15 year-old girl
“correctly,” and that the THREE officers had NOT used “excessive force.” Incredible – eh?!

This article was originally posted here in February, 2007.

[I haven’t run into (or been sent) any 2002-published Taser-related articles.]

Effects of Stun Guns and Tasers
CITATION: Fish R, Geddes L. Effects of stun guns and tasers. The Lancet;
September 1, 2001; Volume 358 [Commentary Section], Pages 687 - 688.
A wishy-washy 2-page commentary that didn’t help (one way or another)
in 2001, and remains unhelpful.

This article was originally posted here on December 2, 2008.

TASER International, Inc. Claims That Its Weapons Are “Absolutely the
best NON-LETHAL protection for your home, business and auto.

Taser Weapons provide extremely effective 50,000 Volt personal protection.”

This is a collection of the Taser.Com site’s “home pages” – found on an Internet
ARCHIVE Site – posted between October 3rd, 1999 and April 1st, 2001.
This collection was originally posted here in February, 2007.

To Return To Wherever You Came From

OR Use the Following Links:

Return to the Restraint Asphyxia LIBRARY

Go to the Restraint Asphyxia Newz Directory


Email Charly at: chas@novelholiday.com